Heating and cooling (H&C) (the major part being heating) represented nearly half of the final energy consumption in the EU in 2017. Therefore, it should be one of the main targets for the decarbonisation efforts. Countries such as, Cyprus, Greece, Malta, Spain, and Portugal where heating & cooling accounted for less than 37% of the total final energy consumption are countries with warmer climate conditions. Additionally, those figures do not include the electricity used for H&C. Hence, in total the H&C represents for more than 50% of the final energy consumed in the EU.
Bio-heat accounted for 16.9% of the EU-28's balance of heating and cooling in 2017 (Fig. 1), which is the largest share of all renewable energy sources: all other renewables accounted for 2.6%.
Deployment of renewables is much slower in the heat sector than with that of the electricity sector. However, to reach the EU’s long-term decarbonization objectives, it is essential to accelerate the efforts within this sector. Long-term strategies to decarbonize the building sector and investments in research and innovation (R&I) for high-temperature needs in the industrial sector or for biomass fuel diversification will be needed.